These photographs provide a range of my traditional work - all produced at an extremely high resolution and suitable for print at massive sizes.
Oia | Santorini, Greece | 2015
Oia is scenic village in the north west edge of the Santorini island within the Cyclades. The settlement had been mentioned in various travel reports even before the beginning of Venetian rule in 1207 AD. It extends for almost 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) along the northern edge of the volcanic caldera that forms the island of Santorini, at a height of between 70 and 100 meters (230 and 330 feet) above sea level. The style typifies the white-painted houses of the Cyclades, in many cases built directly into niches which are cave houses used by crew of the ships, on the lip of the volcanic crater. Between the houses are narrow alleys and the famous blue-roofed churches with cupolas. Wealthy ship captains of the late 19th century also built neo-classical mansions, and these houses are seen built in succession one above the other along the cliffside.
Votivkirche | Vienna, Austria | 2013
The Votive Church (German: Votivkirche) is a neo-Gothic church located on the Ringstraße in Vienna, Austria. Following the attempted assassination of Emperor Franz Joseph in 1853, the Emperor's brother Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian inaugurated a campaign to create a church to thank God for saving the Emperor's life. Funds for construction were solicited from throughout the Empire. The church was dedicated in 1879 on the silver anniversary of Emperor Franz Joseph and his wife Empress Elisabeth.
Nuwara Eliya | Sri Lanka | 2015
Located at an altitude of 1,868 m (6,128 ft) in the central highlands of a tropical island, Nuwara Eliya offers the best advantages of both worlds: tropical abundance and a pleasant cool mountain climate. Known as “Little England”, the area is filled with waterfalls and is considered to be the most important location for tea production in Sri Lanka.
Milos Island | Greece | 2013
Milos, or Melos, is a volcanic Greek island in the Aegean Sea, just north of the Sea of Crete. Milos is the southwesternmost island in the Cyclades group. The island is famous for the statue of Aphrodite (the "Venus de Milo", now in the Louvre), and also for statues of the Greek god Asclepius (now in the British Museum) and the Poseidon and an archaic Apollo in Athens. The Municipality of Milos also includes the uninhabited offshore islands of Antimilos and Akradies, shown in the distance of the photograph.
Tomb of Agamemnon | Mycenae, Greece | 2013
The Treasury of Atreus, or Tomb of Agamemnon, is an impressive "tholos" tomb on the Panagitsa Hill at Mycenae, Greece - constructed during the Bronze Age around 1250 BC. The lintel stone above the doorway weighs 120 tons, with approximate dimensions 8.3 x 5.2 x 1.2m; the largest in the world. The tomb was used for an unknown period. Mentioned by Pausanias, it was still visible in 1879 when the German archeologist Heinrich Schliemann discovered the shaft graves under the 'agora' in the Acropolis at Mycenae. It is formed of a semi-subterranean room of circular plan, with a corbel arch covering that is ogival in section. With an interior height of 13.5m and a diameter of 14.5m, it was the tallest and widest dome in the world for over a thousand years until construction of the Temple of Hermes in Baiae and the Pantheon in Rome. Great care was taken in the positioning of the enormous stones, to guarantee the vault's stability over time in bearing the force of compression from its own weight. This obtained a perfectly smoothed internal surface, onto which could be placed gold, silver and bronze decoration. The silhouette of my wife walking through the entrance demonstrates the sheer immensity of this space.
UNESCO World Heritage Site 941 - Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
Kavala | Greece | 2014
Kavala is a city in northern Greece, the principal seaport of eastern Macedonia and the capital of Kavala regional unit. It is situated on the Bay of Kavala, across from the island of Thasos. The city was founded at about the end of the 7th century BC by settlers from Thasos, who called it Neapolis. The military Roman road Via Egnatia passed through the city helped commerce to flourish. It became a Roman civitas in 168 BC, and was a base for Brutus and Cassius in 42 BC, before their defeat in the Battle of Philippi. In the 6th century, Byzantine emperor Justinian I fortified the city in an effort to protect it from barbaric raids. In later Byzantine times the city was called Christoupolis and belonged to the theme of Macedonia. Kavala was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1387 to 1912. In the middle of the 16th century, Ibrahim Pasha, Grand Vizier of Suleiman the Magnificent, contributed to the prosperity and growth of Kavala by the construction of an aqueduct, as seen in the photograph. Kavala was briefly occupied by the Bulgarians during the first Balkan War in 1912, but was finally captured by Greece in 1913. During World War II and after the fall of Athens, the Nazis awarded Kavala to their Bulgarian allies in 1941, causing the city to suffer once again, but finally was liberated in 1944.
Nine Arch Bridge | Ella, Sri Lanka | 2015
This 100 foot (30 meter) tall viaduct was commissioned in 1921 during the British Colonial period of Sri Lanka and built entirely of solid rocks, bricks, and cement - without using a single piece of steel. There is a popular story that when World War I began, the steel consignment assigned for this site was seized and distributed to other projects. When work on the bridge came to a standstill, the locals came forward to build it without steel and succeeded using rather clever methods of engineering. At the time of construction, this was considered to be the longest viaduct in the East.
Temple of Apollo | Ancient Corinth, Greece | 2014
From bits of pottery found among the chippings left by the masons, the Temple of Apollo in Ancient Corinth has been dated to around 540 BC. It was built to replace an earlier temple from the 7th Century BC. Before the excavations began which revealed the extent of the ancient city, the columns of the temple of Apollo were all that were visible. This was the only indication archaeologists had of other finds which might be discovered. The temple was built in the Doric style. It had 6 columns at each end, and 15 along each side. It was 53m (174 feet) long and 21m (70 feet) wide. The Doric columns are monolithic, that is, made from single pieces of stone. The stone used was limestone, and had a surface of white marble stucco applied to it. Each of the columns is over 7m (23 feet) high, and at the base has a diameter of 1.7m (5 feet 8 inches). Seven of these columns remain standing, with a section of the entablature intact resting on the tops of the columns. One interesting feature is that the floor beneath each colonnade rises in a convex curve. This is the earliest known occurrence of this refinement; this feature was used later in the Parthenon in Athens. The inner building comprised two rooms or cellas, placed back to back. Each of these cellas was entered by a porch, each with two columns in front of them. Inside the cellas were two rows of smaller columns. According to the Greek traveler Pausanias (who probably wrote his descriptions between 155 and 180 AD), there was a bronze statue of Apollo in the Temple. In the Greek period large steps to the east of the temple led down to the Lechaion Way and to the entrance to the agora.
Golden Temple of Dambulla | Sri Lanka | 2015
A sacred pilgrimage site for 22 centuries, this cave monastery, with its five sanctuaries, is the largest, best-preserved cave-temple complex in Sri Lanka. Prehistoric Sri Lankans would have lived in these cave complexes before the arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka as there are burial sites with human skeletons about 2700 years old in this area, at Ibbankatuwa near the Dambulla cave complexes. It has five caves under a vast overhanging rock, carved with a drip line to keep the interiors dry. In 1938 the architecture was embellished with arched colonnades and gabled entrances. Inside the caves, the ceilings are painted with intricate patterns of religious images following the contours of the rock. There are images of the Lord Buddha and bodhisattvas, as well as various gods and goddesses. The Dambulla cave monastery is still functional and remains the best-preserved ancient edifice in Sri Lanka. This complex dates from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC, when it was already established as one of the largest and most important monasteries. King Valagambahu is traditionally thought to have converted the caves into a temple in the 1st century BC. Exiled from Anuradhapura, he sought refuge here from South Indian usurpers for 15 years. After reclaiming his capital, the King built a temple in thankful worship. Many other kings added to it later and by the 11th century, the caves had become a major religious centre and still are. King Nissanka Malla gilded the caves and added about 70 Buddha statues in 1190. During the 18th century, the caves were restored and painted by the Kandyan Kings.
UNESCO World Heritage Site 561 - Criteria: (i)(vi)
Sanctuary of Athena | Delphi, Greece | 2013
One hundred miles northwest of Athens, soaring high above the Gulf of Corinth, stands the holy mountain called Parnassus. Nestled amidst the pine forested slopes and rocky crags of the sacred peak are the beautiful and exceptionally well-preserved ruins of Delphi. A city of wondrous artistic achievements and grand athletic spectacles during the flowering of Greek culture in the first millennium BC, Delphi is best known, however, as the supreme oracle site of the ancient Mediterranean world. This photograph shows remains of the Tholos temple at the Sanctuary of Athena Pronaia, with sacred Mt. Parnassus in the background. Located roughly one-half mile from the main concentration of buildings at Delphi, Athena Pronaia was the gateway to Delphi. The site, having been occupied since the Neolithic Period (5000-3000 BC) and later by the Myceneans, may actually predate Delphi as a sacred place. Originally dedicated to the worship of an Earth Goddess, the shrine was eventually occupied by Olympian deities, Athena in particular. A guardian of wisdom and spiritual consciousness, Athena continued the ancient veneration of the feminine principle and brought devotion to the Earth Mother into the Classical Age of Greece. The Tholos temple, built in the early 4th century BC, has an unusual circular shape. This shape and the leaf-adorned capitals of its Corinthian columns are representations of the sacred forest groves of the old Earth Goddess religion. Writing in The Earth, The Temple, and The Gods, Vincent Skully comments that "The omphalos, or navel, which was supposed to mark the center of the world, was kept in the sanctuary of Apollo's temple itself (in the center of nearby Delphi), but the Tholos of Athena's sanctuary more clearly seems to evoke the navel of the earth than does any other building there."
UNESCO World Heritage Site 393 - Criteria: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(vi)
Gal Vihara | Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka | 2015
The Gal Vihara, also known as Gal Viharaya and originally as the Uttararama, is a rock temple of the Buddha situated in the ancient city of Polonnaruwa in North Central Province, Sri Lanka. It was fashioned in the 12th century by Parakramabahu I. The Uttararama was where Parakramabahu I held a congregation of monks to purify the Buddhist priesthood, and later drew up a code of conduct for them. This code of conduct has been recorded in an inscription on the same rock face containing the images of the Buddha. The Uttararama was abandoned during the fall of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa. It had functioned as an educational establishment from its inception to its abandonment, being a centre of Buddhist education in the country. The large seated image is 15 feet 2.5 inches (4.636 m) tall, and depicts the dhyana mudra. The seat was carved in the shape of a lotus flower, its base decorated with carvings of flowers and lions. The statue sits on a carved throne, decorated with makara images, with four small images of the Buddha (identical to the larger image) carved inside small chambers. This is an unusual feature in ancient Sinhalese sculpture, and is presumably the result of Mahayana influence.
UNESCO World Heritage Site 201 - Criteria: (i)(iii)(vi)
Méteora | Thessaly, Greece | 2013
In a region of almost inaccessible sandstone peaks, monks settled on these 'columns of the sky' from the 11th century onwards. Twenty-four of these monasteries were built, despite incredible difficulties, at the time of the great revival of the eremitic ideal. In 1344, Athanasios Koinovitis from Mount Athos brought a group of followers to Metéora. From 1356 to 1372, he founded the great Meteoron monastery on Broad Rock, which were perfect for the monks; they were safe from political upheaval and had complete control of the entry to the monastery. The only means of reaching it was by climbing a long ladder, which was drawn up whenever the monks felt threatened. At the end of the 14th century, the Byzantine Empire's 800-year reign over northern Greece was being increasingly threatened by Turkish raiders who wanted control over the fertile plain of Thessaly. The hermit monks, seeking a retreat from the expanding Turkish occupation, found the inaccessible rock pillars of Meteora to be an ideal refuge. More than 20 monasteries were built, beginning in the 14th century. Six remain today.
UNESCO World Heritage Site 455 | Criteria (i) (ii) (v) (vi) (vii)
Rankoth Vehera | Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka | 2015
Rankoth Vehera is a stupa located in the ancient city of Polonnaruwa in Sri Lanka. The stupa was built by Nissanka Malla, who ruled the country from 1187 to 1196. The structure is made entirely of brick, has a base diameter of 550 feet (170 m) and a height of 108 feet (33 m). However, the original shape of the stupa - particularly its upper portion - has been changed during renovation work carried out by later rulers and it is estimated that the original height of Rankoth Vehera may have been almost 200 feet (61 m).
UNESCO World Heritage Site 201 - Criteria: (i)(iii)(vi)
Land of Corinth | Greece | 2013
Ancient Corinth was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta. According to Hellenic myth, the city was founded by Corinthos, a descendant of the god Helios (the Sun), while other myths suggest that it was founded by the goddess Ephyra, a daughter of the Titan Oceanus, thus the ancient name of the city (also Ephyra). Also according to myth, Sisyphus was the founder of a race of ancient kings at Corinth. It was in Corinth that Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, abandoned Medea. During the Trojan War as portrayed in the Iliad, the Corinthians participated under the leadership of Agamemnon. In a Corinthian myth recounted in the 2nd century AD to Pausanias, Briareus, one of the Hecatonchires, was the arbitrator in a dispute between Poseidon and Helios, between the sea and the sun: his verdict was that the Isthmus of Corinth belonged to Poseidon and the acropolis of Corinth, Acrocorinth, to Helios. Thus Greeks of the Classical age accounted for the archaic cult of the sun-titan in the highest part of the site. For Christians, Corinth is known from the two letters of Saint Paul in the New Testament, First Corinthians and Second Corinthians. The second book of Pausanias' Description of Greece is devoted to Corinth. Ancient Corinth was one of the largest and most important cities of Greece, with a population of 90,000 in 400 BC. After its total destruction in 146 BC, the Romans built a new city in its place in 44 BC and later made it the provincial capital of Greece.
Rice Paddy | Sri Lanka | 2015
According to documentary evidence, Sri Lanka had developed rice cultivation as early as 800 B.C. This is further reflected by the construction of massive irrigation structures, reservoirs, and interconnected canals since 390 B.C. Once renowned as the granary of the east, Sri Lanka offered more than 2000 indigenous rice varieties to the rest of the world.
Mount Pentelicus | Greece | 2014
Mount Pentelicus or Pentelikon is a mountain range in Attica, Greece, situated northeast of Athens and southwest of Marathon. Its highest point is the peak Pyrgari, elevation 1,109 meters. Even since antiquity, Mount Pentelicus has been famous for its marble, which was used for the construction of the Acropolis and other buildings of ancient Athens. Pentelic marble is flawless white with a uniform, faint yellow tint, which makes it shine with a golden hue under sunlight. The ancient quarry is protected by law, and used exclusively to obtain material for the Acropolis Restoration Project. The roadway used to transport marble blocks from the quarry to the Acropolis in antiquity is a continual downhill, and follows the natural lay of the land. A monastery is also located in the middle of the mountain, north-east of city centre. A major fire in early July 1995, and several more in the years after, consumed much of the mountain forest - as seen in the still-charred landscape of the photograph.
Pond of the Prince | Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka | 2015
This pond attached to King Parakramabahu’s palace in the ancient city of Polonnaruwa is popularly known as Kumara Pokuna or the “Pond of the Prince”, and is where the ladies of the court would have taken their evening bath circa 12th century AD.
UNESCO World Heritage Site 201 - Criteria: (i)(iii)(vi)